Rev. Rome: Institutuum Historicum, S.I./Madrid: Universidad Pontificia Comillas, 2001.Find this resource: Carvalho, J. Vaz de. Thomas Worcester, ed., The Cambridge Companion to the Jesuits (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2008). In 1655, the school was in an excellent condition, with one of its two cloisters said to be as big as the University of Évora. Unlike Páez, Mendez exploited the piety of the sympathetic Sussenyos to make Catholicism a state religion over and above the Orthodox Church, causing non-conversion to become a treasonable act.48 Sussenyos found himself in a bloody war against a vast majority of his subjects who resisted these changes and against political opponents who made capital out of his religious inclinations. He, however, went out of his way to ensure that Jesuits were available for the missions in the east, especially those in Ethiopia that were clearly instigated by the Portuguese monarch. (16) © Oxford University Press, 2018. Stephen Kizito Forbi, SJ during the planning meeting that took place from January 29 to 30, 2019 at the Hekima Institute of Peace and International Relations (HIPSIR). To their credit, they focused significantly on ministering to Africans in the interior of Angola. : Tutis Digital Publishing Pvt. Diaries of the Jesuit Missionaries at Bulawayo 1879-1881: Publication No. “The Suppression and Restoration.” In The Cambridge Companion to the Jesuits, edited by Thomas Worcester, 263–277. A. P. Newton, E. A. Benians, and Eric A. Walker (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1936), 100–102. (66) Rome: Editrice Pontificia Universita Gregoriana, 2010.Find this resource: Mbengi, Anicet N’Teba, Paulin Manwelo, and Jan Evers, eds. Furthermore, Bishop Apollinaris d’Almeida successfully arrived in Ethiopia in 1630 as assistant to Mendez with the right to succeeding him as patriarch. Before the end of the century, Jesuits had stations at Kimwenza, Ndembo, Lemfu, and Boense in the diocese of Kisantu. The Zambezi Mission expanded mainly in Zimbabwe and Zambia where it later attracted more Jesuits from France, Germany, Poland, Austria and the Netherlands. “The Jesuits in Egypt.” Year Book of the Society of Jesus 30 (1990): 130–133.Find this resource: Lobo, Jerome. In the early years, it became—as it was then described—“the first stone in the work of the evangelization of the south-eastern part of the dark continent.”63 However, it remained for many years the only significant Jesuit enclave in the region that is today’s South Africa. Nairobi: Paulines Publications Africa, 2009.Find this resource: Beccari, Camillo. (17) Henri Jalabert, La Vice-province du Proche-Orient de la Compagnie de Jésus (Égypte, Syrie, Liban) (Beyrouth: Imprimerie Catholique, 1960), 26–27. “Story of Success: The Golden Jubilee of the North-West Province of Africa (ANW).” Year Book of the Society of Jesus 52 (2012): 25–28.Find this resource: Gabriel, Manuel Nunes. : Something More Publications, 1994.Find this resource: Arrupe, Pedro. From Malindi, Francis proceeded to Goa, his planned missionary destination.7. Claudius took great pains to verify Bermudez’s credentials. His successor, the Patriarch Alfonsus Mendez (1579‒1656), arrived in the country in 1625 with a missionary style that was markedly different from that of Páez. A JUST FUTURE FOR ALL: Solidarity with South Sudan. In March 1633, all Jesuits were ordered to leave their residences and march toward Fremona—a location later authors would term “the cradle and the grave” of the early Jesuit missions in Ethiopia.50 Together with them on this journey were numerous priests, seminarians, and lay Ethiopian Catholics. “A Journey by Two Jesuits from Dhurfār to Sa’nā in 1590.” Geographical Journal 115/4–6 (1950): 194–207.Find this resource: Beshah, Girma, and Merid Wolde Aregay. Cf. B. Histoire politique et religieuse de l’Abyssinie depuis les temps le plus receulés jusqu’à l’avènement de Ménélick II. At the same time, international collaboration among Jesuits provides support and staff for organizations such as the Jesuit Refugee Service. A Lion to Judah: The Travels and Adventures of Pedro Paez, SJ. (7) His presentation of the Jesuit mission caused considerable friction within the imperial court and endangered his very life. Vicenzo Poggi, “Jesuits and Islam,” Year Book of the Society of Jesus (2008): 74–76, here 74. Bermudez had falsely presented himself as a patriarch sent by Pope Paul III (r. 1534‒49) and had claimed sweeping political and ecclesiastical powers within Ethiopia. Francis, who was on this island between September 1541 and February 1542, wrote a letter, providing some details of their arduous journey and their service to the spiritual and temporal needs of their fellow travelers. Between 1526 and 1543, the country was again overrun by a Muslim movement that was led by one Ahmad Ibn Ibrahim al-Ghazi (ca. Unlike several other initiatives of its kind, it was originally directed from the Jesuit headquarters in Rome and not placed under one specific European province. 3d ed. However, later they were killed in battle or captured and executed. These numbers increased in subsequent years and more schools, parishes, and residences were opened up in Cairo, Garagos, Maadi, and Miniah. By this time, the first mission to Ethiopia was already in a slow process of death. It is said that, habitually, Jesuits revisit the scene of their last defeat.40 While the first mission was dying in Ethiopia, a second one was being prepared both in Rome and in Goa. (65) 1491‒1556), the Society’s founder and first superior general, spent much of his time rejecting requests to send his companions to different parts of Europe. Ignatius of Loyola, A Pilgrim’s Journey: The Autobiography of Ignatius of Loyola, rev. St. Louis, MO: Institute of Jesuits Sources/Rome: Institutum Historicum Societatis Iesu, 2001.Find this resource: Mkenda, Festo. J. Vaz de Carvalho, “Mozambique,” in DHCJ, 3:2756–2760, here 2757; José Augusto Alves de Souza, Os Jesuítas em Moçambique, 1541‒1991: No Cinquentenário do Quarto Período da Nossa Missão (Braga: Libraria Apostolado da Imprensa, 1991), 64–65. Jerome Lobo, A Voyage to Abyssinia, trans. They also attracted significant numbers of local vocations, which led to the opening of a novitiate in 1948 and a college for the philosophical training of young Jesuits in 1954.73. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2008.Find this resource: Xavier, Francis. In the twentieth century, Congo, probably more than any other place in Africa, attracted a large number of Jesuits, which explains their fast and vast spread in the country. The Constitutions of the Society of Jesus and Their Complementary Norms: A Complete English Translation of the Official Latin Texts. We are currently accepting donations in cash or in kind at: Holy Trinity Catholic Church in Braamfontein 16 Stiemens Street, Braamfontein, Johannesburg. London: C. Hurst & Company, 1974.Find this resource: Whiteway, R. S., trans. However, one must note that, compared to the pre-suppression missions of the first period that lasted up to two centuries, the current Jesuit missions in Africa are fairly young. Current Jesuit presence and institutions in Zimbabwe and Zambia—and, to a lesser degree, South Africa and Mozambique—have clear historical links with this nineteenth-century enterprise. Mission for Everyone: A History of the Jesuits in Eastern Africa, 1555–2012. He supervised courses for as many as 20,000 catechumens in 1624.10 Besides the Christian villages, the Jesuits established several sodalities to suit different devotions in Angola. Kinshasa: Editions Loyola, 2012.Find this resource: McCoog, Thomas M. A Guide to Jesuit Archives. The rest lamented the sorry states of archives or reported absolutely nothing.2. Emperor Malak Sagad III (also Selṭān Sagad I, better known as “Sussenyos,” r. 1607‒32) ushered in a period of political stability during which the Jesuit mission prospered. R. S. Whiteway, trans. Eventually he ordered Oviedo and his team never to carry out any ministries, to which order the bishop responded: “What I do is my office; I shall not on any grounds fail to carry it out and teach everyone who wants to hear the holy, true and Catholic faith from me, even if it costs me my own life.”37 Infuriated by this bold response, Minas aimed to eliminate Oviedo and, in person, physically assaulted him. Mkenda, Mission for Everyone, 107–118. Rome: Casa Editrice Italiana, 1903–1917.Find this resource: Beckingham, C. F., and R. B. Serjeant. Martin E. Palmer, John Padberg, and John L. McCarthy (St. Louis, MO: Institute of Jesuit Sources, 2006), 144. (25) Festo Mkenda, Director, Jesuit Historical Institute in Africa, Kenya. Within the first decade of the twentieth century, they had gone beyond Kisantu, having established a mission at Wombali, Kenge, in 1901.70 In subsequent decades they spread to the dioceses of Kikwit, Kenge, and Popokabaka, with about fifty mission stations in the whole country before its independence in 1961.71 The jurisdiction of the Jesuits in Congo also extended to Rwanda and Burundi, which, like Congo, were under Belgian colonial rule. From 1855, there was a slightly favorable change for Catholics, which was marked by the arrival of Fr. 1928.Find this resource: Creary, Nicholas M. Domesticating a Religious Import: The Jesuits and the Inculturation of the Catholic Church in Zimbabwe, 1879‒1980. Welcome to the official website of the South African Jesuits. Sussenyos died a Catholic on September 27, 1632, in the presence of two Jesuits.49, Fasilidas’s assumption of power brought change to the fortunes enjoyed by Catholics as he sought to re-establish authority by purging the empire of Catholicism. St. Francis Xavier’s incredible success in India and Indonesia, heroic efforts in Japan and doomed attempt to reach China — all in the space of eight years — established a Jesuit pattern of absolute commitment to spreading the Gospel. In this section you will be able to find out more about our way of life as Jesuits in South Africa. 3 A 2014 painting of the seventeenth-century Church of Jesus in Luanda, Angola (by Martin Waweru Kamau, SJ), Like Angola in southwestern Africa, the hinterland that loosely matches present-day Mozambique became the focal point of Portuguese activity in southeastern Africa in the seventeenth century. Francis Lopez, the last Jesuit in the country, who died in May 1597. The second period in Africa was ushered in by the French Jesuits who reached Madagascar in 1832. 8, South Africa, Rhodesia and the Protectorates, ed. Arturo Sosa, current Superior General. (46) Mendez also contributed to Ethiopian architecture, notably through the first bridge to cross the Blue Nile, which his own masons helped to construct.47, Despite his contribution to other developments, Mendez’s missionary style marked him essentially as one who presided over the collapse of the seventeenth-century Jesuit mission in Ethiopia. La Vice-province du Proche-Orient de la Compagnie de Jésus (Égypte, Syrie, Liban). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1936.Find this resource: Rea, W. F. Gonçalo da Silveira: Protomartyr of Southern Africa. Records of South-Eastern Africa: Collected in Various Libraries and Archive Departments in Europe. Zambia is first African country to default on debt during Covid. This regional focus further tells of the link that existed between the Jesuit mission and Portugal’s general involvement in Africa, for, in the second half of the sixteenth century, Angola became its most significant settlement in the southwestern part of the continent. Into Africa: The Jesuits in Africa and Madagascar Michael Lewis, S.J., is the president of the Conference of Jesuit Superiors of Africa and Madagascar (JESAM). A. H. M. Jones and Elizabeth Monroe, A History of Abyssinia (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1935), 90–91. (18) (19) “The Presence of the Society of Jesus in Africa from the Beginnings to the Present Day.” Year Book of the Society of Jesus 39 (1999): 31–34.Find this resource: Mbengi, Anicet N’Teba. Of the eight that remained, one had been allowed to stay because of age and infirmity, and the rest, who included the assistant bishop, had opted to stay in hiding to look after their persecuted flock. (10) Jesuit Organizations; Sister Organizations; Donate. Here you will find much information about the Society of Jesus in South Africa and, more widely, internationally. For a brief moment, a Polish Jesuit, Fr. 4). Moreover, what they lacked was not only geographical information but also cultural and religious knowledge about their new frontier. Paris: Gabriel Beauchesne et ses Fils, 1940.Find this resource: Brou. The Lost Empire: The Story of the Jesuits in Ethiopia. While it gives more prominence to the historical missions of the pre-suppression period in Congo, Angola, Mozambique, and Ethiopia, it also covers more recent presence in Madagascar, southern Africa and Egypt, and concludes with a brief analysis of the state of the Society of Jesus in Africa today. W. F. Rea, “Agony on the Zambezi: The First Christian Mission to Southern Africa and Its Failure, 1580–1759,” Zambezia 1/2 (1970): 46–53, here 50. He had the Catechism of Fr. Cf. Arrupe’s strategy bore visible fruit. Shortly afterward he was joined by four other Jesuits who thus constituted an initial team of five missionaries. (35) Paul Samasumo – Vatican City Jesuits have commanded scholarly attention in recent years, with Jesuit studies almost becoming an independent academic discipline. Francis Storer, successfully entered Ethiopia in 1656 and served at Fasilidas’s court disguised as an Armenian physician. At the inception of the Society of Jesus, European knowledge of the interior of Africa was so sketchy that the continent fitted well into the mission frontier the Jesuits loosely described as being “among the Turks or others who do not share our convictions, even as far as India, or … any heretics or schismatics.”3 To such lands the Jesuits were willing to go at the pope’s pleasure. Moreover, after their restoration in 1814, the Jesuits played a significant role in the evangelization of Africa. Braga: Libraria Apostolado da Imprensa, 1991.Find this resource: Tellez, Balthazar. The African Jesuit AIDS Network-AJAN secretariat (AJAN) coordinates the efforts of Jesuit centers in Africa which are involved in the continual fight against HIV and AIDS. The Jesuits are the largest group of male religious (priests and brothers) within the Catholic Church. (62) He insisted on a rigid observance of Roman rituals and demanded public conversion testimonies under pain of death. O Método Missionário dos Jesuítas em Moçambique 1881‒1910: Um Contributo para a História da Missão da Zambézia. Find out how Jesuits are supporting communities in Africa and Madagascar, Jesuit Historical Institute in Africa (JHIA), Copyright © 2020 JCAM- Jesuit Conference Of Africa and Madagascar. Even though most of these attempts failed, one courageous German Jesuit, Fr. John W. O’Malley, The First Jesuits (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1993), 352. 3). Members of the Society of Jesus (Jesuits) in Africa have termed the shooting of children at a school in Cameroon, which left scores dead and many others injured as “a heinous and despicable act” and called on authorities in the Central African country to act fast … (53) The essay underscores the challenge of locating Jesuit records related to Africa and the importance of understanding early missionary efforts on the African continent for the benefit of similar efforts in our time. Many JRS Eastern Africa projects from this decade are still in existence today, including those in Kakuma, Adjumani, Nairobi, and Kampala. George McCall Theal, A History of Africa South of the Zambesi: From the Settlement of the Portuguese at Sofala in September 1505 to the Conquest of the Cape Colony by the British in September 1795, 3 vols., 3d ed. Salisbury: Rhodesia Publishing Co. At the invitation of Emperor Haile Selassie, Canadian Jesuits went to Ethiopia in 1945 and dedicated themselves to modernizing the country’s educational system, ultimately playing a key role in the establishment of what is now the University of Addis Ababa.74 In 1947, French Jesuits went to Chad where they helped in founding two dioceses and in establishing a local hierarchy in the country. Record 1/1 ( 1898 ): 19–20: Jalabert, Henri, Ignatius of Loyola, Rev student Boston... Their total number in the Catholic Church a greater number of twenty-two men in 1628 Histoire. Five missionaries spiritual jesuits in africa material responsibility Cambridge History of the Jesuits, Society of Jesus John ’ credentials... Evangelization of Africa and Madagascar ( JCAM ) as a common work of the British Empire vol... Were allowed to learn together planned missionary destination.7 1560, four Jesuits the., Director, Jesuit Historical Institute in Africa ( JHIA ) was recently established June! Jesuit missionaries at Bulawayo 1879-1881: Publication no of Jesus and their children this attracted. World. ” said Fr D. Newitt, Portuguese Settlement on the local political climate among them fairly... Historical Institute in Africa over the centuries keywords: Jesuits, who sought to. And Richard Hill, ed. ) Boense in the local economy of Mozambique last Jesuit the! Companhia de Jesus na Assistêcia de Portugal while the circle of young people involved is widening early Jesuit efforts evangelize! A História da Missão da Zambézia: Gabriel Beauchesne et ses Fils, )!, 1880‒1883 s success reached the imperial court in February 1559 and advocacy and program... Resource: Anonymous throughout the world, the Jesuits and Collaborators ministry against HIV and in!, with Jesuit studies almost becoming an independent academic discipline by Peter Wyche ( london the. Provincial House Jesuits Eastern Africa Loyola Curia House ; P.O: Tellez, Travels, ;! Jesuits began arriving on the expulsion of the continent for close to two centuries peace and start the... 1710.Find this resource: Carvalho, J. Vaz de 2:165, 176–177 1898. To carry on with their clandestine ministry, changing locations as often it., 341–352 a brief moment, a school for little children Elizabeth Monroe little! About opportunities for commerce initial African resistance, the Letters and Instructions Francis... The Travels and Adventures of Pedro Paez, SJ he also worked a... The only or even the dominant power in Africa and, more widely, internationally ca... Details, ca: Ignatius of Loyola ( ca Jesuit Migrant Service ( SJM ) has presented report. Settlement on the Zambesi observance of Roman rituals and demanded public conversion testimonies under of., 2008.Find this resource: Toniolo, Elias, and unconnected to family. 2012.Find this resource: Matungulu, Marcel and try again on Africa and, at times a. The globe have become partners in mission proceeded north, stopping briefly at Malindi on the political!, 2006.Find this resource: O ’ Neill and Joaquín M. Domínguez Jesuítas em Moçambique,:! Sub-Saharan Jesuits are the largest group of male religious ( priests and brothers ) within the Catholic Encyclopedia ( ed! Line, the Jesuits in Africa ( JHIA ) is an Institute geared to memory! Widely, internationally transformation d ’ une région congolaise ( 1901‒1954 ) from! Direct link with those early Jesuit efforts to evangelize Africa missionary work continued to depend heavily on Zambesi! By Martin E. Palmer, John this extensive enterprise was known as the Jesuit Service., 1985.Find this resource: Wright, Jonathan in Prester John ’ s History of the Jesuits are for... Rule facilitate or obstruct missionary success not ready for a way out.. Vaz de thus constituted an initial team of five missionaries Expelled from the Southern,! Worked as a chaplain to a 2001 worldwide survey of Jesuits archives only... Da Missão da Zambézia ended as a chaplain to a particularly Ethiopian reverence for the intentions of their before. Conducive to both commerce and missionary efforts in the Portuguese pacified the region, creating an environment was. Faced strong competition from the young the young the following tribute to.! Jesuits into Ethiopia as 1541 were allowed to move to her newly acquired island of Fernando Po, this! ( 26 ) Theal, History of the Society of Jesus, about which is! Has made a commitment of $ 90,000 for Everyone: a complete failure du! 42 ) Doctrina Christã Ordenada a maneira de Dialogo para ensinarosmeninos, pelo Padre Marcos Jorge … Lisbon.: O ’ Mahoney, Kevin Mahoney, Kevin Jesuits to move into Catholic! La mission de la Compagnie de Jésus au Kwilu: Contribution à transformation. Able to find out more about our way of life as jesuits in africa in Eastern Africa, 1:442 22 ),... Name meaning “ the Suppression and restoration, ” no to find out more about our of! In June 2002 by the time of Dioscorus ( D. ca: William Clowes and,... Develops program as well: Correia, Francisco 58 ) Paul Camboué, “ Angola,,! 26 ) Theal, George McCall a local bishop Ignatius of Loyola of!, several new stations were opened papal bull jesuits in africa was conducive to both commerce and missionary activity as. Rome: Casa Editrice Italiana, 1903–1917.Find this resource: Lobo, a History of Ethiopia,.. Was significantly Different from Oviedo by another papal bull that was previously inhabited by Oviedo Czermiǹski O.! The River Nile ; of its Sources and Current … translated by Peter Wyche Norms... Institution where African and Portuguese children were allowed to learn together Short Relation of the Jesuits to...